世界中で起きている重要な事件、事象についての忌憚なき批判、批評の場とします。


by shin-yamakami16

アフガン「国軍」兵士:仏兵4人射殺、15人負傷させる

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         カブール近郊のNATO軍・アフガン国軍兵士たち

サルコジの「撤退」示唆は本当か?
                             山上 真

 今日1月20日の欧米メディアは一斉に、アフガニスタン国軍兵士によるNATO軍兵士の殺傷事件を伝えている。

 事は、今朝8時頃(現地時刻)、アフガン東部Kapisa州Tagab地方で起きた。アフガン国軍の制服を身に着けた一兵士が,突然フランス軍兵士に向かって射撃を始め、4人を殺し、15人を負傷させたという。昨年末12月29日にも、仏外人部隊兵士がアフガン国軍兵士に射殺されたばかりであった。

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 この悲劇的事件を受けて、サルコジ仏大統領は、アフガニスタンでの全ての仏軍作戦を中止させ、「アフガン駐留仏軍の早期撤退」を示唆した。次期大統領選挙を控えての「思惑」が何処に向かうのか注目される所だ。


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 米国『ニューヨーク・タイムズ』紙・電子版も、今日のトップ記事として、「アフガン兵士がNATO同盟軍に対する殺害に乗り出す」という衝撃的なタイトルの長文の論説を掲載している。

 同論説によると、2007年5月から2011年5月にかけて、アフガン兵士・警官によるNATO軍兵士に対する攻撃が26回に上り、少なくとも58人の欧米兵士が犠牲になっているということだ。

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 その背景として、米国政府などの、アフガン国軍創設の為の必死の努力にも拘らず、例えば最近起きた「米兵、タリバン死者に放尿」事件に見られるような行為を平然と為す欧米軍兵士に対する「激しい憎悪」が、アフガン兵士に巣食っており、決して両者の精神的な溝は埋まっていないことを指摘している。


 結局の所、戦争によって、アフガニスタンという異文化圏に欧米文明を無理矢理押し付けて、従わせようとするブッシュなど欧米指導部の発想の根本的誤りが、今日の全ての混乱と悲劇を招いていると言って差し支えないであろう。 (2012.01.20)

               <追記>
1. 仏兵が4人射殺された事件の数時間前、アフガン南部で米海兵隊員搭乗のヘリコプターが「墜落」し、6人全員が死亡した。米軍当局は「墜落原因不明」としているが、タリバンは「撃墜」を主張している。 (2012.01.21)

2. 'le Parisien'紙に依ると、米国務長官クリントン女史は、20日、サルコジ氏の「アフガン仏軍撤退」示唆を受けて、「フランス軍は早期に撤退しないものと信じる」とする談話を発表した。一方、'France Info'に依ると、次期仏大統領・最有力候補のHollande氏(社会党)は、2012年末までにはアフガン駐留仏軍を撤退させると述べた。(2012.01.21)

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    1月21日アフガン現地に赴いて、亡き4兵士を哀悼するロンゲ仏国防相

3. 仏兵に発砲したアフガン国軍兵は、長期に渉って政府軍に潜入していた21歳のタリバン分子であることがタリバン側の「犯行声明」で判明した。事件時、仏兵は基地内でジョギングなどの運動をしている最中だった。負傷者15人の内、8人は重傷だという。アフガンでは、NATO軍は一般に「占領軍」と看做されて憎悪されているということだ。(2012.01.22)


<写真・資料> Le Monde, Le Figaro, The New York Times

<参考資料>

仏『ル・モンド』紙—「パリ政府は4兵士死亡の後、アフガン作戦を中断した」

Paris suspend ses opérations en Afghanistan après la mort de quatre soldats
LEMONDE.FR avec AFP et Reuters | 20.01.12 | 09h53 • Mis à jour le 20.01.12 | 14h07
Quatre soldats français ont été tués et une quinzaine blessés, dont huit grièvement, vendredi 20 janvier, par un militaire afghan dans l'est de l'Afghanistan. Nicolas Sarkozy, qui a confirmé, lors de ses vœux au corps diplomatique, la mort des soldats, a annoncé la suspension des opérations de formation et d'aide au combat de l'armée française auprès de l'armée afghane. "Je ne peux pas accepter que des soldats afghans tirent sur des soldats français", a souligné Nicolas Sarkozy. La question d'un retour anticipé de l'armée française est posée, a-t-il ajouté.
La France demande à l'armée afghane des "assurances crédibles" sur le recrutement de ses soldats, sans quoi les troupes françaises se retireront d'Afghanistan de manière anticipée, a prévenu vendredi le ministre des affaires étrangères français Alain Juppé.
La question sera évoquée lors de la visite du président afghan en France. En attendant, Gérard Longuet, le ministre de la défense, est envoyé en Afghanistan, auprès des militaires français. "C'est une tragédie qui s'apparente à un assassinat", a déclaré le ministre, qui a réclamé une "enquête immédiate".
Le ministre a précisé que les événements s'étaient produits dans la base de Gwam, dans le nord-est du pays. "C'est dans le cadre d'un entraînement à l'intérieur de la base qu'un tireur a abattu, assassiné quatre de nos soldats dans des conditions qui sont inacceptables, a-t-il poursuivi. Ils n'étaient pas armés, ils ont été proprement assassinés par un soldat afghan. On ne sait pas pour l'instant si c'est un taliban infiltré ou si c'est quelqu'un qui a décidé de son geste pour des décisions que nous ne maîtrisons pas."
CONDOLÉANCES DE KARZAÏ À LA FRANCE
"Le président est attristé par cet incident et exprime sa sympathie profonde et ses condoléances au peuple français et aux familles des victimes", a indiqué le président afghan Hamid Karzaï dans un communiqué, ajoutant que "la France avait apporté une aide considérable" à l'Afghanistan ces "dix dernières années" et que "les relations entre les deux pays avaient toujours été basées sur l'honnêteté".
Le secrétaire général de l'OTAN, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, a aussi présenté ses condoléances à la France, estimant qu'il s'agissait d'un "jour très triste" pour les troupes engagées dans le pays.
LES FRANÇAIS CONCENTRENT LEURS EFFORTS EN KAPISA
La France compte actuellement 3 600 soldats dans le pays, après le retrait de 400 de ses militaires depuis le mois d'octobre. Les forces françaises ont enregistré en 2011 leurs plus lourdes pertes depuis le début du conflit, avec 26 soldats tués en opération, dont cinq dans un attentat suicide le 13 juillet.
Le 29 décembre, deux légionnaires français avaient aussi été tués par le tir délibéré d'un soldat afghan de l'ANA, l'Armée nationale afghane, une attaque sans précédent de la part d'un militaire afghan, selon l'état-major des armées. L'auteur de la fusillade avait été immédiatement abattu par les militaires français. Selon l'armée, l'assaillant faisait partie d'un "détachement permanent de l'ANA" posté sur une montagne de la province de Kapisa, au nord-est de Kaboul. Ils avaient été rejoints par les militaires français à l'occasion d'une opération conjointe d'appui et de soutien.
Après la décision annoncée fin novembre par le président afghan Hamid Karzaï de transférer aux forces afghanes la responsabilité de la sécurité du district de Surobi (est de Kaboul), les Français concentrent leurs efforts en Kapisa, où ils ont subi la totalité de leurs pertes de 2011. Ils sont fortement impliqués dans la formation de l'armée afghane, qui doit prendre le relais de l'OTAN après le départ de la force internationale, programmée pour 2014.


米国『ニューヨーク・タイムズ』紙—「アフガン兵士は同盟軍兵士の殺害に乗り出した」
January 20, 2012
Afghanistan’s Soldiers Step Up Killings of Allied Forces
By MATTHEW ROSENBERG
KABUL, Afghanistan — American and other coalition forces here are being killed in increasing numbers by the very Afghan soldiers they fight alongside and train, in attacks motivated by deep-seated animosity between the supposedly allied forces, according to American and Afghan officers and a classified coalition report obtained by The New York Times.
A decade into the war in Afghanistan, the report makes clear that these killings have become the most visible symptom of a far deeper ailment plaguing the war effort: the contempt each side holds for the other, never mind the Taliban. The ill will and mistrust run deep among civilians and militaries on both sides, raising questions about what future role the United States and its allies can expect to play in Afghanistan.
Underscoring the danger, four French service members were killed and a number were wounded on Friday when a gunman wearing an Afghan National Army uniform turned his weapon on them, according to an Afghan police official in Kapisa Province in eastern Afghanistan where the incident occurred and a Western official in Kabul, who spoke on condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to speak to the press. The Afghan police official, Asdullah Hamidi, said the shooting happened in Tagab District, an area that is viewed as dangerous and dominated by insurgent forces.
The gunman is in custody, a NATO official said.
The violence, and the failure by coalition commanders to address it, casts a harsh spotlight on the shortcomings of American efforts to build a functional Afghan Army, a pillar of the Obama administration’s strategy for extricating the United States from the war in Afghanistan, said the officers and experts who helped shape the strategy.
The problems risk leaving the United States and its allies dependent on an Afghan force that is permeated by anti-Western sentiment and incapable of combating the Taliban and other militants when NATO’s combat mission ends in 2014, they said.
One instance of the general level of antipathy in the war exploded into uncomfortable view last week when video emerged of American Marines urinating on dead Taliban fighters. Although American commanders quickly took action and condemned the act, chat-room and Facebook posts by Marines and their supporters were full of praise for the desecration.
But the most troubling fallout has been the mounting number of Westerners killed by their Afghan allies, events that have been routinely dismissed by American and NATO officials as isolated episodes that are the work of disturbed individual soldiers or Taliban infiltrators, and not indicative of a larger pattern. The unusually blunt report, which was prepared for a subordinate American command in eastern Afghanistan, takes a decidedly different view.
“Lethal altercations are clearly not rare or isolated; they reflect a rapidly growing systemic homicide threat (a magnitude of which may be unprecedented between ‘allies’ in modern military history),” it said. Official NATO pronouncements to the contrary “seem disingenuous, if not profoundly intellectually dishonest,” said the report, and it played down the role of Taliban infiltrators in the killings.
The coalition refused to comment on the classified report. But “incidents in the recent past where Afghan soldiers have wounded or killed I.S.A.F. members are isolated cases and are not occurring on a routine basis,” said Lt. Col. Jimmie E. Cummings Jr. of the Army, a spokesman for the American-led International Security Assistance Force. “We train and are partnered with Afghan personnel every day and we are not seeing any issues or concerns with our relationships.”
The numbers appear to tell a different story. Although NATO does not release a complete tally of its forces’ deaths at the hands of Afghan soldiers and the police, the classified report and coalition news releases indicate that Afghan forces have attacked American and allied service members nearly three dozen times since 2007.
Two members of the French Foreign Legion and one American soldier were killed in separate episodes in the past month, according to statements by NATO. The classified report found that between May 2007 and May 2011, when it was completed, at least 58 Western service members were killed in 26 separate attacks by Afghan soldiers and the police nationwide. Most of those attacks have occurred since October 2009. This toll represented 6 percent of all hostile coalition deaths during that period, the report said.
“The sense of hatred is growing rapidly,” said an Afghan Army colonel. He described his troops as “thieves, liars and drug addicts,” but also said that the Americans were “rude, arrogant bullies who use foul language.”
Senior commanders largely manage to keep their feelings in check, said the officer, who asked not to be named so he could speak openly. But the officer said, “I am afraid it will turn into a major problem in the near future in the lower ranks of both armies.”
There have been successes, especially among the elite Afghan commandos and coalition Special Operations forces, most of whom have undergone in-depth cultural training and speak at least some Dari and Pashto, the two main languages spoken in Afghanistan. But, as highlighted by the classified report, familiarity in most cases appears to have mainly bred contempt — and that, in turn, has undercut the benefits of pairing up the forces.
The problem has also featured in classified reports tracking progress in the war effort, most of which are far more negative than the public declarations of progress, said an American officer, who asked not to be identified because he was discussing secret information.
“If you get two 18-year-olds from two different cultures and put them in New York, you get a gang fight,” said Anthony H. Cordesman, a defense expert at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington who has advised the American military on its Afghan strategy.
“What you have here are two very different cultures with different values,” he said in a telephone interview. “They treat each other with contempt.”
<中略>
“U.S. soldiers don’t listen, they are too arrogant,” said one of the Afghan soldiers surveyed, according to the report. “They get upset due to their casualties, so they take it out on civilians during their searches,” said another.
The Americans were equally as scathing. “U.S. soldiers’ perceptions of A.N.A. members were extremely negative across categories,” the report found, using the initials for the Afghan National Army. Those categories included “trustworthiness on patrol,” “honesty and integrity,” and “drug abuse.” The Americans also voiced suspicions about the Afghans being in league with the Taliban, a problem well documented among the Afghan police.
“They are stoned all the time; some even while on patrol with us,” one soldier was quoted as saying. Another said, “They are pretty much gutless in combat; we do most of the fighting.”
Alissa J. Rubin, Rod Nordland, Sangar Rahimi and Graham Bowley contributed reporting from Kabul.
by shin-yamakami16 | 2012-01-20 22:54 | Comments(0)