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by shin-yamakami16

今リビアで何が起きているのか?

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         旧カダフィ軍に奪還されつつあるBani Walid

欧米擁護のCNT・新政権:露呈した無能ぶり

                                   山上 真

 あのリビア「革命」・カダフィ殺害から3か月が経過しているが、このところ、すっかり「新生リビア」の様子が伝えられていなかった。欧米の「軍事干渉」で出来上がった政権には、大体碌な事がないのが通例だからと思っていたが、やはり、最近漸く漏れ出た情報から見ると、現在のリビア全土は、改善どころか相変わらず「混沌」とした状況の様だ。

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リビア国民評議会議長に詰め寄る人々


 昨日から今日にかけて現われた仏・英の新聞記事を見ると、リビア「革命」を担ってきたベンガジCNT(国民評議会)に対して、21日、憤りを露にした1,500人程のデモ隊が押し寄せ、手榴弾などで装甲車を燃やし、CNT本部の建物内に侵入してコンピュータなどの器具や机をひっくり返した上、偶々居合わせた前指導者Moustapha Abdeljalil氏に対して、「早急に国家再建を進める」ことや、「国家資産運用の透明性を確保する」こと、今年7月に予定されている「選挙の公正な手続き」などを直接要求したという。また、本部の三階から群衆に説明しようとした同氏に対して、ビンなどが投げつけられた模様だ。

 しかし、これらのデモを指揮したり,要求を突きつけた人物たちが、どのような勢力出身なのか、定かでないということだ。彼らは、「革命」後も、社会的状況がカダフィ時代と大差が見られないことに我慢がならない様だ。

 つい先日、トリポリ周辺部でも、部族間の抗争で撃ち合いが始まり、国防相が仲介に乗り出した事件が起こったばかりで、新政権が目指した戦闘員「武装解除」も、抵抗に遭って、殆ど実現していない。また、新政権側の混乱に乗じて、旧カダフィ側武装勢力の「暗躍」も目立つ様だ。(2012.01.22)

                 <追記>
1.昨日22日から23日にかけて、仏・英などのメディアが一斉に伝える所に依ると、Sirteと共に、旧カダフィ軍の最後の牙城だったBani Walidは、長期の激しい抵抗の後、昨年10月23日に現CNT政府軍に遂に町を明け渡したのであるが、150人程度の戦闘員から成る旧カダフィ軍は、2か月程前から重火器を用いて反撃を再開し、昨日23日には、政府軍守備隊は4人が死亡し、約30人が負傷したことを、親政権側町長スポークスマンが明らかにしたという。同町は反カダフィ軍によって完全に包囲されて、あちこちに旧カダフィ政権の象徴である「緑の旗」が翻っているようだ。CNT政府軍の兵士は、ビルなどの隅に追い詰められて、弾薬も尽きつつあり、「猛火の上のフライパン」上に居る状態であるということだ。AFPに依れば、ミスラタから政府軍が支援に赴いているということだが、現在、首都トリポリを含むリビア各地で部族間の衝突が続いており、大混乱に陥っていることは確かだ。(2012.01.24)

2. 1月24日付英国『ガーディアン』紙に依ると、23日までにBani WalidのCNT政府軍側民兵は放逐され、現地部族長らの協議の結果、CNT現政権の支配を拒絶して、独立した地方政府を樹立することに決した模様だ。これらBani Walidの新指導部は、メディアが報じる「親カダフィ」の立場を否定しており、「緑の旗」は現地に翻っていないと言う。トリポリのCNT政権側も、かねてから、Bani Walidでの衝突は部族間同士の対立に因るものとしている。結局、双方とも、旧カダフィ勢力との関係を否定することにより、新たな武力衝突を避けたいという思惑があるに違いない。しかし、この流れがリビアで広がると、「隠れ」カダフィ勢力の地方統治機構が、CNT中央政権に対抗して具現化することになる。(2012.01.25)

3.今日27日付の『ガーディアン』など英国紙3紙,及びBBC Newsは、「国境なき医師団」及び、国際人権団体アムネスティー・インターナショナル、更には国連安保理(1月25日)で取り上げられた深刻な「リビア国内人権問題」を報道している。そこでは、リビア全土で8,500人以上の旧カダフィ支持勢力とされる黒人系アフリカ人などが劣悪な状態で拘束されて、拷問による訊問が日常的に行われており、死に至らしめる例も跡を絶たないという。「カダフィ時代の人権」問題を口実に武力行使に踏み切ったオバマ・クリントン、サルコジ・キャメロンは、今のリビアの状況について、何か言ったらどうだ?(2012.01.27)

<写真・資料> AFP, RFI

<参考資料>

1. 仏『フィガロ』紙—「CNT本部、襲撃される」
Libye : le siège du CNT pris d'assaut
AFP Mis à jour le 21/01/2012 à 21:58 | publié le 21/01/2012 à 21:00 Réactions (21)
Des manifestants ont lancé samedi plusieurs grenades artisanales sur le siège du Conseil national de transition (CNT, issu de la rébellion) à Benghazi, dans l'est de la Libye, avant d'envahir et de saccager le bâtiment. "Ils ont mis le feu à la façade, brisé des fenêtres et cassé l'une des voitures blindées qui se trouvait là. Des manifestants nous ont aménagé un passage et nous avons pu sortir, personne n'a été blessé. Je suis sorti d'un côté et Moustapha Abdeljalil (le chef du CNT) de l'autre", a dit Fathi Baja, le responsable des affaires politiques du Conseil.

"Les revendications de ceux qui ont fait ça ne sont pas connues, on ne comprend pas. Certains étaient très jeunes, une quinzaine d'années, d'autres plus vieux, il y avait beaucoup de monde. Certains demandent la démission de tout le CNT à l'exception de ma personne, de celle de Moustapha Abdeljalil et d'un autre membre du Conseil", a-t-il ajouté. Les protestataires, armés de pierres et de barres de fer, ont investi les lieux puis saccagé les locaux.

Auparavant, le chef du CNT était sorti pour tenter de les calmer mais des manifestants l'ont conspué et lui ont jeté des bouteilles en plastique.

1500 manifestants

Dans l'après-midi, des manifestants avaient jeté plusieurs grenades artisanales sur le siège du CNT sans faire de victimes, toujours selon des témoins. Ces "jelatinas", des grenades artisanales à base de TNT, ont été lancées sur le bâtiment et dans son périmètre au milieu d'une manifestation d'anciens rebelles blessés au cours de la révolte contre le régime de Mouammar Kadhafi.

En début de soirée, le nombre de manifestants avait grimpé à au moins 1500. Les protestataires réclament plus de transparence de la part du CNT, l'exclusion des "opportunistes" des postes à responsabilité et dénoncent "la marginalisation des blessés".

Ces incidents interviennent à la veille de l'annonce, dimanche, de la loi électorale élaborée par le CNT en prévision de l'élection en juin d'une assemblée constituante et de la composition de la commission électorale.

Le secrétaire du CNT, Moustapha al-Manae, avait indiqué plus tôt dans la journée que Abdeljalil avait reçu un groupe de manifestants afin d'examiner leurs demandes.
"Il leur a ensuite envoyé trois ministres pour en discuter. Leurs demandes sont légitimes", a-t-il ajouté. Une enquête est en cours pour identifier les auteurs de l'attaque.

Le CNT a récemment fait face à des critiques inédites depuis la chute de Mouammar Kadhafi. Un sit-in est toujours en cours à Benghazi, berceau de la rébellion, pour réclamer davantage de transparence et l'exclusion des personnes ayant fait partie de l'ancien régime. Jeudi, le vice-président du Conseil, Abdelhafidh Ghoga, a été agressé par des étudiants en colère à l'université de Benghazi. Le CNT avait alors mis en garde contre "toute atteinte ou agression" à son encontre, affirmant dans un communiqué qu'il était "la plus haute autorité politique légitime" jusqu'à l'élection de l'assemblée constituante. Le CNT avait aussi dénoncé des "campagnes agressives et programmées pour porter atteinte à sa réputation", accusant des partisans de l'ancien régime d'être derrière ces campagnes en vue de "faire échouer la révolution". L'agression jeudi de M. Ghoga "ne sort pas de ce contexte et fait partie d'un plan odieux", avait ajouté le CNT.



2. 英国『インディペンデント』紙ー「反乱が拡大する一方、親カダフィ勢力が油田都市に攻め入っている」
Gaddafi loyalists launch offensive on key oil town as counter-insurgency grows
Four killed in Bani Walid after government troops arrest supporter of former dictator
Portia Walker
Tuesday, 24 January 2012
Fighting in the Libyan town of Bani Walid left at least four dead last night as diehard Gaddafi supporters tried to capture the former loyalist stronghold and raised the old green Libyan flag above the town's northern gate.

Mahmoud al-Warfali, a revolutionary brigade spokesman in Bani Walid, said that as many as 150 pro-Gaddafi fighters were battling forces loyal to the National Transitional Council in the formerly pro-regime redoubt, 110 miles south of the capital, Tripoli.

"There are around 100 and 150 men armed with heavy weapons who are attacking. We have asked for the army to intervene, but the defence ministry and NTC have let us down," he said. "There are at least four martyrs from the thuwar (anti-Gaddafi revolutionaries) and 20 are injured."

He added: "We're out of the frying pan into the fire. We've been warning about this for the past two months."

The loyalist fighters shouted the pro-Gaddafi slogan, "Allah, Muammar, Libya, only!" as they attacked.

The clashes were apparently sparked when NTC fighters arrested an alleged Gaddafi loyalist in the town, prompting other supporters to take up arms.

The fighting began early yesterday and was initially concentrated near the NTC fighters' base, but later spread to other parts of the town. Reinforcements have been dispatched from Tripoli to help quell the violence.

"Two hours ago orders were given for the army to go and they are on the way. The fighting is between some Gaddafi supporters and thuwar," Fathi Baja, a senior NTC member, told AFP.

The attack on Bani Walid is the first major assault launched by Gaddafi loyalists since the "liberation" of the country last October.

Bani Walid has long been a thorn in the side of Libya's new leaders. The town, which is home to the powerful Warfalla tribe, held out after the "liberation" of Tripoli in August. NTC fighters fought for months until it was eventually captured in October.

In November, 15 NTC fighters were killed in an ambush just outside the town by Gaddafi loyalists. The clashes come as Libya's new leaders struggle to stabilise the country and disarm the militias that sprung up during last year's civil war. (後略)

3.英国『ガーディアン』紙ー「旧カダフィ拠点は新リビア政権を拒絶する」
Former Gaddafi stronghold rejects Libyan government's authority
Elders in Bani Walid abolish government-appointed military council and appoint own representatives following gun battle
Chris Stephen in Tripoli, Luke Harding and agencies
guardian.co.uk, Tuesday 24 January 2012 18.49 GMT

Libyan interior minister Fawzi Abdelali said the battle in Bani Walid was between tribal militias rather than a pro-Gaddafi uprising. Photograph: Mahmud Turkia/AFP/Getty Images
Negotiations were going on in Bani Walid on Tuesday, a day after fighters seized control of the Libyan town from the militias loyal to the country's provisional government.

Elders in Bani Walid said they were appointing their own local government and rejected any interference from the authorities in the capital, Tripoli. On Monday, the fighters drove out militias loyal to Libya's ruling National Transitional Council (NTC) in a bloody gun battle, with at least four people reported dead.

The elders denied claims they were loyal to Muammar Gaddafi, who was captured and killed in October after weeks on the run.

There were no signs on Tuesday of Gaddafi-era green flags, which witnesses earlier said had been hoisted over the town.

Libya's interior minister, Fawzi Abdelali, said the battle was between tribal militias rather than a pro-Gaddafi uprising. "The information we have says that there are internal problems between the people of this city and this is the reason for what happened," he said.

About 200 elders who gathered in a mosque decided to abolish an NTC-appointed military council for the town and appoint their own local council, in direct defiance of the authority of the government in Tripoli.

"If [the NTC chief, Mustafa] Abdel Jalil is going to force anyone on us, we won't accept that by any means," one of the elders, Ali Zargoun, told Reuters.

Accounts from Bani Walid, which is about 120 miles from Tripoli, late on Monday described armed Gaddafi supporters attacking the barracks of the pro-government militia in the town and then forcing them to retreat.

A fighter with the routed pro-government militia claimed the loyalists were flying "brand new green flags" from the centre of town. The flags were symbols of Gaddafi's 42-year dictatorship.

But elders on Tuesday disputed that account. "In the Libyan revolution, we have all become brothers. We will not be an obstacle to progress," said another elder, Miftah Jubarra. "Regarding allegations of pro-Gaddafi elements in Bani Walid, this is not true. This is the media. You will go around the city and find no green flags or pictures of Gaddafi." (後略)

4. 仏『国際フランスラジオ』RFIー「リビアのバニ・ワリドでは状況は混乱し、緊張している」
Publié sur RFI (http://www.rfi.fr)
En Libye, la situation reste confuse et tendue à Bani Walid
Créé le 2012-01-24 21:19
Par RFI
LIBYE
En Libye, le Conseil national de transition (CNT), qui fait déjà face à une importante crise politique, doit désormais gérer les conséquences des combats de ce lundi 23 janvier 2012 à Bani Walid, au sud-est de Tripoli. Des affrontements qui ont fait cinq morts et trente blessés. Malgré un apparent retour à la normale, il est difficile de savoir aujourd’hui ce qu'il se passe dans ce bastion kadhafiste.

Le commandant militaire de Bani Walid se veut formel : « La ville est calme, sous contrôle ». Cependant, malgré ces affirmations, la situation reste confuse.

La base de la brigade du 28-Mai où se sont déroulés les combats serait toujours encerclée par les assaillants. Les accès à la ville sont bloqués et la tension reste donc forte. Des hommes en armes sont toujours dans les rues. Des sources indiquent qu'il est difficile de savoir s'il s'agit de partisans des nouvelles autorités ou des anciennes.

Vingt quatre heures après les combats, les versions sur l'attaque sont contradictoires. Alors qu'un responsable local parle de militants « pro-Kadhafi » qui scandaient « Allah, Mouammar, la Libye et c'est tout », les autorités ont démenti.

D'après le ministre de l'Intérieur Faouzi Abdelali, ces violences sont liées à des querelles internes. « Il n'y a pas de drapeaux verts dans la ville, il n'y a rien qui soit lié à l'ancien régime », a-t-il expliqué, ajoutant : « Ce différend serait lié aux compensations demandées par les combattants de la révolution ».

En apparence, le CNT semble contrôler la situation mais les autorités ont néanmoins renforcé la sécurité à Misrata, Benghazi et Tripoli.

5. 英国『インディペンデント』紙ー「『自由』リビアは新たな拷問告発で汚されている」
'Free' Libya shamed by new torture claims
Libya slips back towards the barbarism of Gaddafi
Portia Walker
Friday, 27 January 2012
The moral authority of Libya's new government was called into question by two international aid groups yesterday as confidence begins to falter that the National Transitional Council, backed by Western governments in last year's civil war, can deliver on its promises to deliver freedom and democracy.
Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) brought an abrupt halt to its operations in the Libyan town of Misrata after being asked by officials to treat torture victims, in some cases to allow members of the country's new leadership to abuse the prisoners again.
The move came as Amnesty International said it has collected evidence that Gaddafi supporters had been tortured to death in makeshift detention centres.
The claims by MSF in Libya's third largest town – a centre of resistance against the Gaddafi regime last year – come amid growing concern for the security situation and evidence of human rights violations. Earlier this week, fighters loyal to the former dictator raised the old Libyan green standard above the key oil town of Bani Walid after fighting that led to at least four deaths.
Human rights groups have repeatedly raised concerns that local authorities have routinely used torture against suspected opponents. In particular, they warned that sub-Saharan Africans, who were accused of being mercenaries during the nine-month conflict, are being targeted. MSF has been working in Misrata since last August and the group says it has been increasingly confronted with patients who have injuries caused by torture during interrogation sessions outside official detention centres and jails.
MSF has treated 115 people with torture-related wounds and reported all the cases to authorities in Misrata. Since January, several of the patients who were returned to interrogation centres have been tortured again, MSF said in a statement. "Some officials have sought to exploit and obstruct MSF's medical work," said the charity's general director, Christopher Stokes. "Patients were brought to us for medical care between interrogation sessions, so that they would be fit for further interrogation. This is unacceptable.
"Our role is to provide medical care to war casualties and sick detainees, not to repeatedly treat the same patients between torture sessions."
Other humanitarian groups have raised fears. Amnesty International revealed that several prisoners accused of being Gaddafi loyalists died as a result of torture while being held in makeshift detention centres. Delegates from the group had found visible evidence of torture on detainees during visits to prisons.
The United Nations envoy to Libya, Ian Martin, said the NTC was failing to rein in militia groups: "The former regime may have been toppled, but the harsh reality is that the Libyan people continue to have to live with its deep-rooted legacy."
The allegations come almost a year after the start of the uprising against Gaddafi's 40-year rule. After initially being brutally suppressed, the rebel movement blossomed with assistance from a Nato bombing campaign.
Speaking in August last year, David Cameron said: "There will undoubtedly be difficult days ahead. No transition is ever smooth or easy.
"But today the Arab Spring is a step further away from oppression and dictatorship and a step closer to freedom and democracy. And the Libyan people are closer to their dream of a better future."
Last night, the Foreign Office urged the NTC to investigate the charities' reports. "The MSF report is shocking and the Libyan authorities should thoroughly investigate the claims. We condemn all human rights abuses and have repeatedly made clear that the transitional government must live up to the standards that it has set for itself and make a clean break with the past," a spokesman said.
In its report, Amnesty said it had found that detainees had been suspended in contorted positions, beaten for hours with whips, cables, plastic hoses, metal chains and bars and wooden sticks, and given electric shocks with live wires and Taser-like electro-shock weapons.
"After all the promises to get detention centres under control, it is horrifying to find that there has been no progress to stop the use of torture," said Donatella Rovera, of Amnesty.
Last July, Human Rights Watch reported widespread looting and arson by the Nato-backed rebels.(後略)
by shin-yamakami16 | 2012-01-22 21:29 | Comments(0)